ALEXANDER MARTYNOV was born on the 24th December, 1944. He graduated from
Moscow University of High Technology in 1968, specialising in "Automatic
Control Systems for Flying Apparatus". He worked in Russian Mission Control
Centre from 1968 until 1992 as Head of Ballistics Department. He designed
re-entry modules and controlled their flights to provide soft landing on
the Earth, Mars, Venus and other plants of the Solar system. Since 1992
until 1994 Mr. Martynov was the Director of the Foreign Relations Department
of the Research Institute of Machine Building of the city of Korolev. His
job was marketing for space technology and organising international projects
in this field. Since 1994 Mr. Martynov has been working as the Head of
the Foreign Relation Department for the Administration of Korolev and his
job is marketing and organisation of international projects in different
fields such as industrial and economic development, educational and cultural
programs, etc. Mr. Martynov is a Doctor of Technical Science. He is the
author of 120 scientific articles and 6 books dedicated to spacecraft motion
control in planetary atmospheres. He is also involved in the space program
that works out the efficient probing method to predict dangerous phenomena
such as hurricanes, dust storms, industrial pollution, etc.
IVANCHENKOV, a pilot-cosmonaut of the USSR (I 978).
ALEXANDER IVANCHENKOV was born on the 28th of September in 1940 in
the city of Ivanteyevka near Moscow. In 1958, he finished middle
school with a gold medal. He entered the Moscow Aviation Institute,
on graduating from which in 1964, he began to work at the Korolev Design
Office. He was engaged in designing space technology products.
In 1971, he transferred to the test flight division of the Design Office
run by S. Anohin. In March of 1973, Ivanchenkov was taken on the
test cosmonauts' group of the Central Design Office of Experimental Machine
Building. He was taken into the crew for the first time when the
program, called ApolloSoyuz Experimental Flight, was being realized.
He and Yu. Romanenko were in the back-up crew of the Souyz-16 spacecraft
that made a six-day practice flight in December of 1974 by the Soyuz-Apollo
program. Four times from 1975 to 1978, Ivanchenkov was as a flight
engineer in back-up crews together with Yu. Romanenko (the Soyuz-19
and Soyuz-25 spacecrafts) and V. Kovalienok (the Soyuz-26 and Soyuz-27
spacecrafts). From 1978 to 1982, he flew twice as a flight engineer.
In 1978, Ivanchenkov and Kovalienok, crew's commander, went into orbit
on board the Soyuz-29 spacecraft and made a record 140-day flight on board
the Salut-6 orbital station. During that flight, Ivanchenkov went
into outer space for 2 hours and 5 minutes. Two expeditions visited
the station: Soviet and Polish cosmonauts (P. Klimuk and M. Guermashevskiy)
on board the Soyuz-30 spacecraft, Soviet and German cosmonauts (V.
Bykovskiy and Z. Yen) on board the Soyuz-31 spacecraft. Ivanchenkov
returned to the Earth on board Soyuz-3 1.
In June of 1982, the cosmonaut made the second flight on board the
Soyuz T-6 spacecraft and the Salut-7 orbital station. Duration of
the flight was 8 days. On board the station there was a crew of the
main expedition consisting of A. Berezovoy and V. Lebedev.
Then Ivanchenkov was trained for flights on board the Buran orbital
spacecraft. He was preparing as a flight engineer of the main crew
for the first manned flight on board Buran. When the Buran Space
Shuttle program was over in 1993, he left the cosmonauts' group.
Now be goes on working as deputy chief of a department at the Energiya
Rocket and Space Corporation. He is engaged in training cosmonauts
for long space flights. He is a cosmonaut of the first class.
Ivanchenkov is twice Hero of the Soviet Union (1978, 1982), a Hero
of Labor of the German Democratic Republic. He has been awarded a
Tsiolkovskiy gold medal by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, two Orders
of Lenin, an Order of Honorary Legion's Commander (France), a Polish Gryunvald
Cross of the first class and the other orders and medals. He is a
member of the Presidium of the Council of the France Friends Society.
His bronze bust has been installed in the city of Ivanteyevka, his birthplace.